You might encounter a situation (e.g. on AWS) where you have a new CentOS 7 server, but an old version of MariaDB 5.5 on the server. A couple of reasons for upgrading is bug fixes, performance improvements, ease of upgrading, and the fact that emoji and JSON support only really work nicely in later versions of MariaDB. This article explains how to first upgrade from MariaDB 5.5 to 10.1, and then references an article on how to upgrade from 10.1 to 10.3.
You will need the MariaDB root password to follow the procedure.
Disclaimer: Virtualmin Issues with Menus and Postfix
If you’re upgrading MariaDB on a Virtualmin server, see the note below because this procedure will remove some key components that could make Virtualmin hosted servers menu disappear. Also be sure to back up Postfix
/etc/postfix/main.cf because Postfix might loose it configuration. See comments by Carlos Miguel Hernandez Gil.
First make a backup of your data using method 1 or method 2 described below.
Method 1 backup (best way as MariaDB stays online during the backup):
mysqldump -u root -p --all-databases > /tmp/all-database.sql
Method 2 backup (offline backup):
systemctl stop mariadb cp -a /var/lib/mysql/ /var/lib/mysql.bak
Method 2 backup will leave a folder /var/lib/mysql.bak that you have to remember to delete later on.
Add the 10.1 Repo
Remove the old MariaDB and do yum cleanup. Don’t worry, you made a backup right?
yum remove mariadb-server mariadb mariadb-libs yum clean all
Add MariaDB again, start it up, enable automatic startup, and finalise the upgrade. Check new version.
yum -y install MariaDB-server MariaDB-client systemctl start mariadb systemctl enable mariadb mysql_upgrade -uroot -p mysql -V
A critical command to watch above is the mysql_upgrade command as if you accidentally skip it then you will have (recoverable) problems later on.
Multiple references were followed to compile article article.
On you are on version 10.1, follow the instructions in Reference article #2 below:
Summary of reference #2 instructions to go from 10.1 to 10.3 (without the BACK UP parts):
vi /etc/yum.repos.d/MariaDB10.repo yum update systemctl stop mariadb yum remove MariaDB-server yum install MariaDB-server systemctl start mariadb mysql_upgrade -u root -p mysql -V
And if you’re running Virtualmin:
yum install perl-DBD-MySQL php-mysql postfix postgrey
When performing this procedure on a Virtualmin server, you will notice the following when removing MariaDB indicting key components for Virtualmin going away:
Dependencies Resolved ========================================================================================================================================= Package Arch Version Repository Size ========================================================================================================================================= Removing: mariadb x86_64 1:5.5.60-1.el7_5 @base 49 M mariadb-libs x86_64 1:5.5.60-1.el7_5 @base 4.4 M mariadb-server x86_64 1:5.5.60-1.el7_5 @base 58 M Removing for dependencies: mariadb-devel x86_64 1:5.5.60-1.el7_5 @base 3.3 M net-snmp x86_64 1:5.7.2-37.el7 @base 882 k perl-DBD-MySQL x86_64 4.023-6.el7 @base 323 k postfix x86_64 2:2.10.1-7.el7 @base 12 M postgrey noarch 1.34-12.el7 @epel 104 k Transaction Summary ========================================================================================================================================= Remove 3 Packages (+5 Dependent packages)
The effects of removing Postfix will mean that Virtualmin’s menu list of your virtual servers will be blank. To get that back, reinstall the following packages:
yum install postfix yum install postgrey yum install perl-DBD-MySQL yum install net-snmp (if you used it before)